Christiane Gerber
Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Peter Matuschek
Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


The use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) has grown in popularity as a cutting-edge method for treating anxiety disorder symptoms. These therapies, which have their roots in ancient contemplative practices, show promise in reducing the suffering and impairment brought on by worry. This review explores the brain processes behind the effectiveness of MBIs in treating anxiety disorders by integrating mindfulness practices with modern neuroscience and learning from neuroimaging investigations. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, insula, and default mode network (DMN) are among the brain areas associated with the neuronal circuitry associated with anxiety disorders. In these areas, MBIs tend to promote emotional control, reduced amygdala activation, increased physical awareness, and a shift away from unhelpful rumination. Following mindfulness practice, neuroimaging methods such as fMRI and EEG have shown patterns of enhanced activity, connectivity, and plasticity in these areas. The interplay between these areas demonstrates how intertwined the brain responses to mindfulness are. Improved cognitive control over anxiety-related thoughts and emotions is suggested by increased connection between the PFC and emotional processing areas. The insula's enhanced activity is correlated with a greater awareness of physical emotions and sensations, which reduces the somatic aspects of worry. Additionally, decreases in DMN activity show how mindfulness has the power to divert our attention from self-referential rumination. Finally, the intersection of neuroscience and mindfulness provides a glimpse into the plasticity of the anxious brain. The brain pathways examined in this study provide insight into how MBIs support emotional control, cognitive restructuring, and increased present-moment awareness, eventually opening the door for cutting-edge therapeutic approaches that support conventional anxiety disorder therapies.

Keywords:mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), E-views software, default mode network (DMN), Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI)